What are the 2 factors that influence insecticide resistance?

What are the 2 factors that influence insecticide resistance?

MOA and target site of action are often used interchangeably in practice and are combined as MOA in this learning module. Genetics and intensive application of insecticides are two factors of several responsible for the development of insecticide resistance.

What causes insecticide resistance?

Repeated use of the same class of pesticides to control a pest can cause undesirable changes in the gene pool of a pest leading to another form of artificial selection, pesticide resistance. Worldwide, more than 500 species of insects, mites, and spiders have developed some level of pesticide resistance.

What is insect resistance to insecticides?

Insecticide resistance is defined by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) [31] as ‘a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest …

What is the main mechanism behind pesticide resistance?

Metabolic resistance is the most common mechanism and often presents the greatest challenge. Resistant insects may possess higher levels or more efficient forms of the enzyme(s) that break down insecticides to nontoxic compounds.

How do you manage pesticide resistance?

Managing Pesticide Resistance

  1. Minimize Pesticide Use. Minimizing pesticide use is fundamental to pesticide resistance management.
  2. Avoid Tank Mixes. Avoid combinations (mixes) of two insecticides or miticides in a single application.
  3. Avoid Persistent Chemicals.
  4. Use Long-term Rotations.

Can insects become immune to insecticides?

Insects are known for their ability to develop resistance to insecticides. Upon exposure to insecticides, insects that do not carry the resistance genes die, thus allowing the individuals with the resistance genes to survive and reproduce, creating more resistant insects.

How can pesticide resistance be prevented?

Key elements of resistance management include minimizing pesticide use, avoiding tank mixes, avoiding persistent chemicals, and using long-term rotations of pesticide from different chemical classes. Minimize Pesticide Use. Minimizing pesticide use is fundamental to pesticide resistance management.

How is insecticide resistance related to natural selection?

Pest species evolve pesticide resistance via natural selection: the most resistant specimens survive and pass on their acquired heritable changes traits to their offspring. Over 500 species of pests have evolved a resistance to a pesticide.

Why is insecticide resistance important?

With insecticide resistance, it is also necessary to intervene in the evolutionary process and find ways of reducing its deleterious impact on pest management. It is often necessary to contend with a whole pest complex rather than just a single pest species.

How can we prevent insecticide resistance becoming a problem?

Take Steps to Avoid Insecticide Resistance

  1. Monitor pests — Use research-based sampling procedures to determine if pesticides are necessary (based on action/economic thresholds) and the best application timing (when pests are most susceptible).
  2. Employ appropriate control measures —
  3. Select and use insecticides wisely —

Why is insecticide resistance resistant important?

The goal of successful resistance management is to reduce populations of pests, whether they are resistant or susceptible to pesticides. The general recommendation when using pesticides is to alternate or tank-mix pesticides of different chemistry and modes of action.

Which is the best reason why some insects are resistant to pesticides group of answer choices?

1) There is variation in a population of insects. Genetic mutations make some insects naturally resistant to a pesticide. 3)The alleles which caused the pesticide resistance will be passed on the next generation, and so the population will evolve to become more resistant to the chemical.

How would you manage pesticide resistance in your crop?

Resistance Management Strategies

  1. Know the product group and choose products from different groups when possible in your spray rotation.
  2. Limit the total number of applications from a single group within a growing season, particularly with single-site pesticides.
  3. Know the active ingredient of a pesticide.

How do you manage pest resistance?

Managing resistance

  1. Only using pesticides when necessary.
  2. Alternating pesticides in different resistance management groups.
  3. Using tank mixtures or pre-mixes of pesticides in different resistance management groups.
  4. Monitoring to make sure pesticides are applied at the most effective time.

How do you manage insecticide resistance?

How can we prevent insect resistance?

How do you control insecticides?

Control methods

  1. Biological pest control.
  2. Cultural control.
  3. Trap cropping.
  4. Pesticides.
  5. Hunting.
  6. Physical pest control.
  7. Poisoned bait.
  8. Fumigation.

How can we prevent pesticides in water?

Mix pesticides, clean equipment and rinse containers in an area where pesticides and rinse water cannot enter sewers or storm drains. Keep pesticides out of waters and areas near waters. Minimize potential harm to birds, beneficial insects, and fish by using pesticides only when necessary.

Insecticide resistance is a heritable change in the susceptibility of a pest population to a particular insecticide, or insecticide group. In practice, insects that repeatedly fail to be adequately controlled by the registered rate of an insecticide are said to be insecticide resistant.

How is insecticide resistance An example of natural selection?

Pesticide resistance is an example of natural selection because the insects who survive the initial use due to a gene that enable them to resist the attack pass on the gene for pesticide resistance to their offspring. The pesticides become less and less effective every year because organisms adapt to them.

What are the factors that contribute to resistance to pesticides?

Pesticide resistance probably stems from multiple factors: Many pest species produce large numbers of offspring, for example insect pests produce large broods. This increases the probability of mutations and ensures the rapid expansion of resistant populations.

Is it necessary to intervene with insecticide resistance?

With insecticide resistance, it is also necessary to intervene in the evolutionary process and find ways of reducing its deleterious impact on pest management.

What is the result of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes?

The potential result of mosquito resistance to insecticides is that the insects are not killed when they come into contact with a standard dose of an insecticide deployed through ITNs or IRS. However, this does not mean that these interventions will be ineffective immediately, or that there will be a surge in malaria cases.

How many pesticide resistant species are there in the world?

Other sources estimate the number to be around 1,000 species since 1945. Although the evolution of pesticide resistance is usually discussed as a result of pesticide use, it is important to keep in mind that pest populations can also adapt to non-chemical methods of control.

What are the factors that contribute to insecticide resistance?

Genetics and intensive application of insecticides are two factors of several responsible for the development of insecticide resistance. Insects with genes that confer resistance to a particular insecticide or class of insecticides survive treatment and are thereby “selected” to pass on this resistance to later generations.

Are there any insects that are resistant to more than one insecticide?

Localized populations of Colorado potato beetle are notorious for multiple resistance to more than 50 insecticides with various modes of action. Multiple resistance is less common than cross-resistance but is potentially a greater concern because it drastically reduces the number of insecticides that can be used to control the insect in question.

How are insecticides used to keep populations under control?

Insecticides are used to keep populations under the control, but over time insects can build up a resistance to the chemicals used. This is called insecticide resistance. Insecticide resistance is apparent when a popu lation stops responding or does not respond as well to applications of insecticides.

Why are caterpillars resistant to so many insecticides?

Mature caterpillars are more tolerant to many insecticides than younger ones of the same species due to differences in body size, exoskeleton thickness, and the ability to metabolize a poison. These differences are identified as tolerance or natural resistance rather than true insecticide resistance.

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